SPECIFICATIONS

Every detail matters

Engines

Specifications_Fuel

Petrol (汽油) engines

Specifications

  • Engines
    • Engine Name
      B4204T19
    • Engine Type Description
      Four-cylinder direct injection turbo petrol engine
    • Power Train
      FWD (前輪驅動)
    • Number of Cylinders
      4
    • Engine Displacement
      1969 cc
    • Engine Bore
      82 mm
    • Engine Stroke
      93.2 mm
    • Specifications_Key Kilowatts Amount
      140 kW
    • Horsepower (Hp)
      190 hp
    • Rev at max engine power
      4700 rpm
    • Torque
      300 Nm
    • Rev at max engine torque
      1300 - 4000 rpm
    • Fuel type
      Petrol (汽油)
  • Capacity
    • Fuel Capacity
      62 l
    • Cargo Capacity
      324 l
    • Towing Capacity
      1500 kg
  • Weights
    • Serving Weight
      1546 kg
    • Total Weight
    • Six-speed Geartronic™ automatic transmission
      1965 kg
    • Roof Max Load
      75 kg
  • Exterior Dimensions
    • Height
      1420 mm
    • Length
      4369 mm
    • Width
      1857 mm
    • Width inc. Mirrors
      2041 mm
    • Wheel Base
      2647 mm
    • Track Front
      1559 mm
    • Track Rear
      1546 mm
    • Turning Circle
      10.8 mm
  • Interior dimensions (w/o sun roof)
    • Head Room Front
      984 mm
    • Head Room Rear
      932 mm
    • Shoulder Room Front
      1396 mm
    • Shoulder Room Rear
      1349 mm
    • Leg Room Front
      1073 mm
    • Leg Room Rear
      847 mm
    • Hip Room Front
      1374 mm
    • Hip Room Rear
      1352 mm
  • Miscellaneous
    • Environmental Classification
      Euro 6

FEATURES & OPTIONS

Add something extra

  • Safety Comfort Tech & Sound Pack & Load Performance Environment
  • IntelliSafe Standard

    • Inflatable Curtain
      • In a frontal offset or side-on collision, the Inflatable Curtain helps protect the heads of both front and rear passengers who are sitting on the sides. It also stays inflated for several seconds to provide prolonged protection in the event of secondary impacts.
    • SIPS™ side impact protection system
      • We believe that the car should bear the brunt of any collision, not the people inside it. That’s why we’ve developed our cars so that they offer legendary protection, not just from front and rear impacts, but also from side-on collisions. The steel framework of the car – and that includes the front seat frames – has been designed to help displace the impact of a side-on collision away from the people inside and prevent intrusion into the cabin. And because we understand that an impact with a larger vehicle is a possibility on busy roads, the extremely strong side structure contains ultra-high strength steel to help withstand a severe impact. We have even taken into account the side windows – the Inflatable Curtain works in conjunction with SIPS™ and the side airbags to protect people in the front seats. In the rear, SIPS™ and the Inflatable Curtain protect the passengers in the outer rear seat.
    • City Safety
      • Adding to a relaxed driving experience, our standard-fitted City Safety technology always looks out for you, detects danger ahead and warns you and intervenes if necessary. City Safety uses advanced radar and camera technology to constantly scan the road ahead for moving or standstill vehicles in your direction, as well as for pedestrians and cyclists – day or night. A Volvo safety world-first, it can also detect large animals such as elk, horses and reindeer. City Safety gives you audible, visible and brake pulse warnings if you approach the vehicle in front too fast or if there are pedestrians, cyclists or large animals in your path. If you don’t react to the warning and a collision is imminent, full auto­braking is engaged to help you avoid or mitigate an impact. Simultaneously, the safety belts are prepared to help minimise the strain on your body if a collision can't be avoided. In an intersection, City Safety can also assist by braking automatically if you should turn into the path of an oncoming car – a Volvo safety world-first designed to help you avoid or mitigate this type of dangerous collision. If there is an imminent risk of a collision with a vehicle in the same direction, City Safety can reduce your speed with up to 50 km/h and thereby help avoid a collision by automatic braking. A collision with a cyclist riding in the same direction as your car can be avoided at a speed difference up to 50 km/h. At higher speed differences, the collision will be mitigated. And to help you avoid or mitigate a collision with elks and other large animals, the system can reduce the speed of your car with up to 15 km/h.
    • Emergency Brake light
      • Our Emergency Brake Light helps alert vehicles approaching from behind if you are forced to panic brake. It works above 50km/h and knows the difference between normal and panic braking. If it is a panic stop, the brake lights will flash at a rate of four times per second, which will telegraph a clear message to following traffic that there’s a potential problem ahead. Once you slow to below 10km/h, the brake lights stop pulsing and your hazard lights take over.
    • Brakes with Hill Start Assist and Automatic Hold
      • In an emergency situation, the large anti-lock ventilated disc brakes of your Volvo will make all the difference. And if you find yourself travelling down a mountain road with the need to brake often and hard, you’ll welcome our brakes’ resistance to fading. But since there is always a risk of fade, your Volvo is prepared for this, too, with Fading Brake Support. This system gradually builds hydraulic brake pressure so that you always have reassuring pedal feel. But what if you find yourself having to brake in an emergency, and perhaps not applying the necessary pressure to the pedal? Well, we’ve developed Hydraulic Brake Assist, which ensures maximum braking pressure is applied hydraulically during a panic stop. Likewise, if you suddenly lift off the accelerator or sensors detect an obstacle in front of the car, Ready Alert Brakes instantly move the brake pads closer to the brake discs to reduce the braking distance. And Electronic Brake Distribution ensures that the right amount of braking goes to the front and rear of the your Volvo depending on where the load in the car is distributed and what the road conditions are. The braking system of your Volvo also contributes to your convenience when you're at standstill in different conditions. An automatic hold function ensures the brakes will be kept engaged after you have braked the car to standstill and releases the brake pedal. If the car is stopped for a longer period, the power parking brake takes over. And to make it easier and safer to starting uphill or downhill from standstill, the Hill start assist function keeps the brakes applied a short period after you have released the brake pedal until you press the accelerator – there's no risk the car will move while your foot moves from the brake pedal to the accelerator.
    • SIPS™ side impact protection system
      • We developed our unique SIPS™ side impact protection system to help protect where you and your passengers are most exposed in the event of a side-collision. The steel framework of the car – including the front seat frames – is designed and reinforced to help displace the impact of a side-collision away from the occupants to other parts of the car body and help prevent intrusion into the cabin. The extremely strong side structure contains ultra-high strength steel and softer grades of steel to help withstand a severe side impact – even with a larger vehicle. The Inflatable Curtain for all the outboard occupants and the front seat side airbags interact with the SIPS™ to help provide further protection. In the rear, SIPS™ and the Inflatable Curtain help protect the passengers in the outer rear seats including the third row.
    • Dual-stage airbags, driver and front passenger
      • In a frontal collision, the driver and passenger airbags help protect your head, face and chest. But because no two collisions are the same, the airbags adapt the level of inflation depending on the force of the impact. The driver’s airbag also interacts with the deformation of the collapsible steering column. And if the impact is low enough that the airbags aren’t needed, the system will just deploy safety belt pre-tensioners if necessary.
    • Inflatable Curtain
      • In a frontal offset collision, a side impact or a roll­over accident the Inflatable Curtain helps protect the heads of both front and rear passengers who are sitting on the sides, including the ones in the third row of the seven­seat version. It also stays inflated for several seconds to provide prolonged protection in the event of secondary impacts.

    Preventive safety

    • Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) with Queue Assist and Distance Alert
      • Helping the driver to keep a safe distance from vehicles in front at all speeds up to 200 km/h, this third generation ACC is a supportive partner for a more relaxed driving experience on any journey. In slow moving city traffic the new Queue Assist function automatically adapts your speed to the vehicle in front. From standstill, a press of a button or the accelerator is all it takes to make your car smoothly tail the vehicle in front. At speeds over 30 km/h, just select the desired speed and the minimum time gap to the vehicle in front. When the radar sensor detects a slower vehicle in front, the speed automatically adapts to that vehicle. And when the road is clear, the car resumes the selected speed. If ACC is disengaged and a vehicle in front comes too close, Distance Alert activates a warning light in the lower section of the windscreen to help you keep a proper distance. ACC also includes Collision Warning with Auto Brake (CWAB).
    • Dynamic Stability and Traction Control (DSTC)
      • It can catch you out when you least expect it. And it really is a heart-stopping moment when, on a rain-slicked or ice-covered road, the tail of your car steps out as it threatens to go into a skid. Steer into that skid and you can end up fishtailing, and ultimately, going into a spin. This is precisely the kind of scenario that has made Dynamic Stability and Traction Control (DSTC) one of our most vital safety advances of the past decade. The system looks at factors like what direction the car is travelling, how fast the wheels are rotating and how much steering lock is applied. Using all this information, DSTC can detect a potential skid and take action to prevent it by reducing engine power and/or braking the appropriate wheels.
    • Indirect Tyre Pressure Monitoring System
      • With our Indirect Tyre Pressure Monitoring System you'll be instantly alerted in the driver display if one of your tyres is low on pressure. Active at 30 km/h or more, it helps increase your safety as well as ensuring maintained comfort and handling characteristics. The system uses the car's anti-lock brake system sensors to calculate the tyre pressure.
    • LED dayrunning lights
      • Automatically activated during daylight, these energy efficient LED lights make your car more conspicuous. And when the dipped beam is needed for illumination, they are automatically engaged by a twilight sensor. What’s more, the spoiler integrated LED lights also add to the distinct styling of your Volvo. Only in combination with halogen headlamps.
    • LED illumination with Active Bending Lights
      • Journeys after dark have just become a lot more enjoyable and safer. These high-level signature design LED headlights combine an impactful look with safety and convenience. LED illumination technology allows a supremely wide and long light pattern – the light is more than twice as strong as conventional halogen lights. And helping you to see around corners at night, the lights turn up to 15 degrees in either direction with the steering. During daytime, the distinctive hammer shaped light-guides not only act as dayrunning lights to make your car more conspicuous – they also flash in a warm colour when indicating. And when the dipped beam is needed for illumination, they are automatically engaged by a twilight sensor. Contributing to improved fuel economy and lower running costs, the LED lights are extremely energy efficient and last the lifetime of the car without losing any luminance. Adding our Driver Alert System including an Active High Beam function, you can stay on high beam all the time. When another car approaches from the opposite direction, the headlights automatically shift between high and low beam to optimise your vision without dazzling other drivers. The same applies to cars in front of you. And because the system is intelligent, the high beam shuts off when you enter a city, but if you drive past an illuminated sign – say a filling station or supermarket – it stays on so you can see what’s coming up. This means you benefit from safety as well as convenience.

    Security

    • Alarm
      • The alarm is connected to the doors, bonnet, boot and ignition. It also reacts to movement inside the car or the breaking of a window. A level sensor can be added to deter thieves from jacking up the car to steal your wheels or tow it away.
    • Remote-controlled central locking system
      • A touch of a button on the remote control unlocks the doors and bootlid. Use the personal settings menu to decide if the remote unlocks the driver’s door first, or all doors at the same time. You can also close or open all windows (including the sunroof if you have one) and unlock the boot separately.
    • Global locking and closing
      • This function allows you to close all windows and lock the car all at once by pressing the button on the remote control or the Personal Car Communicator for two seconds. Alternatively, press the button for two seconds to unlock the car and open all the windows.
    • Immobiliser and theft-protected locks
      • Not only will the door locks withstand most break-in attempts, the electronic immobiliser makes it impossible to start the car without the right remote control. And even if a would-be thief manages to get into the car via a window, the deadlock system makes it impossible to open the doors from the inside.
    • Personal Car Communicator with Keyless drive
      • PCC is an advanced remote control that combines ‘keyless drive’ with two-way communication with your Volvo. Keep the PCC with you and the car unlocks automatically as you pull the door handle. Start the engine by pressing a button on the dash, and when you park, lock your car by pressing a button in the door handle. Later in the day, if you’re wondering whether you’ve locked your car, the PCC can tell you by displaying the status that the car was last left in, wherever you are in the world. When you are approaching your car (within a distance of approximately 100 m), the PCC can give you a warning if the car’s alarm has been activated, and an extra visible warning if it’s been activated within the last five minutes. Keep the car key in your pocket or handbag. Using keyless drive technology you can unlock the doors and drive away without using the car key. To start the engine, just turn the starter control in the instrument panel.
    • Approach and Home Safe lighting
      • Activated with the remote control, Approach Lighting provides a warm reception on a dark night. This consists of parking lights, interior lights and ground lighting too, if fitted. Home Safe Lighting is activated with the headlight stalk as you leave the car. This feature provides a low beam from the headlight to accompany you to your door, whether you’re returning home or are out on the road.
  • Seats

    • Electrically powered driver seat with remote memory
      • The memory function of the power operated driver seat and door mirrors helps ensure your Volvo is perfectly adjusted to your personal preferences every time you enter the car. Every time you use your remote control for the central locking, the driver seat and door mirrors will automatically adjust to your preferences (you get two remote controls with your Volvo and can order up to four more). Each remote control triggers the corresponding setting from the last time that particular remote control was used. Furthermore, you can save up to three different seat and door mirror settings by using the buttons on the seat. And an electrically adjustable passenger seat is also optionally available.
    • Power operated passenger seat
      • Adding to the comfort and convenience for your front passenger, the power operated front passenger seat cushion and backrest are easily adjusted using the intuitive controls placed on the outside of the seat cushions.
    • R-Design seats
      • Inspired by racing seats, the R-Design seats feature seating surfaces in high-friction durable nubuck textile. Together with the seat's side support, this keeps you firmly in place even during the high lateral g-forces that often comes with inspired driving. Alternatively, the seating surfaces are in genuine nappa leather that have a genuine natural feel that is soft to the touch and adds a luxurious touch to the interior. Contrasting stitching enhances the sculpted seat design. And for the uncompromised sporty touch, sections of the seats are upholstered in perforated leather that also are echoed in the handbrake lever, gearshift gaiter and front centre armrest.

    Climate

    • CleanZone
      • Our CleanZone technology is created to give you and your passengers a better and healthier interior environment with clean air and minimised amounts of interior emissions. The system continuously monitors the incoming air quality. As soon as it detects harmful substances – such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen dioxides – it temporarily shuts off all incoming air and starts recirculating the air inside the cabin. And if the interior air quality would deteriorate – for example if a window is open –you will be noticed via a symbol in the centre display. An active carbon filter effectively filters out harmful substances like vehicle exhaust and diesel exhaust particles. It also reduces some chemical odours from the outside, for example from the windscreen washer fluid. This helps to ensure that the air you breathe in the car is clean, often cleaner than that outside when driving in heavy city traffic and tunnels. To prepare a fresh environment in your new Volvo even on a warm day, the automatic CleanZone function initiates a ventilation cycle, which is triggered when you unlock the car with your remote control. This feature is active on days when it is at least 10°C outside. The automatic CleanZone function also does a great job of venting out allergy and asthma inducing substances, especially gases and smells from new materials in your new car. This automatic function is gradually reduced during the first years of usage to finally be terminated.
    • Electronic Climate Control
      • Electronic Climate Control (ECC) maintains the cabin temperature you choose and can be set independently for the driver and front passenger. Further contributing to your health and comfort, the system’s humidity sensor helps ensure cabin air has an appropriate level of humidity in relation to the outside climate.

    Storage

    • Front cupholders
      • The two cupholders for the driver and front seat passenger are hidden under an elegant roll-top cover and conveniently positioned in the tunnel console. To provide extra storage, the cupholders can be removed.
    • Front centre armrest
      • Further adding to your comfort and convenience, the front centre armrest is fore-aft adjustable and incorporates several facilities. Two cup holders and a 12 V power outlet are concealed by a roll-top cover. There's a handy storage space beneath the armrest, and special recesses for small items. The armrest also features an AUX input or – depending on your choice of audio system – a USB port to connect your auxiliary devices to the car's audio system.
  • Driver's support

    • Park Assist Camera, rear
      • To further improve your convenience when reversing, the rear Park Assist Camera helps display what’s going on behind your car. Using a digital camera discretely located under the tailgate handle, it shows a wide view behind your car on the centre display. On-screen guiding lines provide extra assistance for smooth parking. You can also switch the camera to a zoomed-in view close to the car – very convenient when hitching a trailer, for example.
    • Cruise control
      • Conveniently operated from the steering wheel, cruise control allows you to drive in a more relaxed way without having to keep your foot on the accelerator. The car maintains the speed you choose until you turn off the cruise control or press the brake, accelerator or clutch. After braking or using the clutch, the car returns to its previous cruising speed at the touch of a button. After accelerating – for instance to overtake – your car automatically reverts to its previous cruising speed once you release the accelerator.
    • Trip computer
      • Operated via the indicator stalk, the trip computer on the digital LCD shows current and average fuel consumption, how far the fuel will take you and average speed – helping you drive more economically.
    • Driver adjustable power steering
      • To adapt the speed-dependent power steering characteristics to your own personal preferences, you can add driver adjustable power steering. While the steering assistance adjusts automatically depending on your car’s speed, you can choose in the centre display between three levels of overall steering feel and sensitivity – for low, medium or high steering assistance through the entire speed range.
    • Rain sensor
      • Once activated, the rain sensor can start the windscreen wipers as soon as it begins to rain or if water splashes onto the windscreen. For your convenience, it can also automatically adapt the intermittent windscreen-wiper function. Its sensitivity can be adjusted via a ring on the wiper stalk.
    • Indirect Tyre Pressure Monitoring System
      • With our Indirect Tyre Pressure Monitoring System you'll be instantly alerted in the driver display if one of your tyres is low on pressure. Active at 30 km/h or more, it helps increase your safety as well as ensuring maintained comfort and handling characteristics. The system uses the car's anti-lock brake system sensors to calculate the tyre pressure.

    Communication

    • Bluetooth® handsfree system, integrated
      • Want to access your mobile phone while you’re on the road to find an address, lay out a route in the navigation system and call ahead that you’re on your way? The on-board Bluetooth® technology lets you do all this wirelessly through the infotainment system – and play some music along the way. Once configured for a mobile phone, the system automatically recognises your phone as you enter the car. And as you get in and out of the car, the system automatically allows you to switch freely from the phone to the handsfree system and back again. The audio systems High Performance and Premium Sound by Harman Kardon include an integrated Bluetooth® handsfree system, allowing you to operate your phone conveniently using the buttons on the steering wheel or the centre console keypad. Phone information is shown on the centre console multimedia display. And if you’ve chosen Sensus Navigation system, you can make your calls using voice control. What’s more, you can stream high quality audio from a media player and listen to it through the car’s audio system. The Bluetooth® word mark and logos are owned by the Bluetooth SIG, Inc. and any use of such marks by Volvo Car Corporation is under licence. Other trademarks and trade names are those of their respective owners.
  • Load compartment

    • Parcel shelf net
      • Mounted under the parcel shelf, this compartment net for loose items (such as an umbrella, books, maps etc.) helps you maintain order in the load compartment while keeping your stuff easily accessible when you need it.
  • Engines

    • T4 (2.0L I4 turbo petrol engine)
      • Why choose between performance and efficiency when you can have it all? With our lightweight Drive-E powertrain generation no efforts have been spared to give you the most efficient, confident and exciting driving experience – for today as well as for the future. Utilising state-of-the-art engine technology and innovative out-of-the-box thinking, our engineers have created a range of 2.0-litre four-cylinder engines with the same power output and driveability as considerably larges engines. Low friction technology, innovative engine management and common rail fuel-injection contribute to supremely low fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions, while the turbocharger provides this compact engine with the power and torque you need. Our Stop/Start technology and engine braking energy regeneration help you to reduce fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions even more. And low engine weight contributes to agile handling on winding roads. Together with the fuel-saving six-speed Geartronic™ automatic transmission, this 190 hp/300 Nm T4 drivetrain ensures a smooth ride. And if you'd like to boost your efficiency even further, our intelligent ECO function optimises the engine, the automatic transmission and the climate system to further lower your fuel consumption with about 5%. A six-speed manual gearbox is also available.

    Transmission

    • Six-speed Geartronic™ automatic transmission
      • We created our new generation Geartronic™ automatic transmissions to give you a more intuitive and efficient driving experience. Mated to our all-new generation turbocharged four-cylinder Drive-E powertrains, this six-speed automatic transmission ensures you're always in the right gear – whether it's for optimal engine response and driveability, or for a smooth driving experience with the highest fuel-efficiency. And offering faster and more precise gear changes in the manual mode, our gearshift paddles will add even more fun behind the steering wheel.

    Chassis & Steering

    • Chassis
      • In collaboration with skilled racing drivers, Volvo's chassis engineers spent thousands of hours on all kinds of roads to create a chassis that satisfies even the most demanding driver. Every single detail of the chassis is optimally tuned for sporty and well-balanced handling with a high level of comfort. For you as driver, advanced multi-link rear and McPherson spring strut front suspension mounted on a rigid body with a low centre of gravity translate into a feeling of being in command and in safe control. The front wheel knuckles are made in aluminium to minimise the unsprung weight and maximise your driving experience. The front and rear suspensions also interact to provide stable braking and crisp steering. In a curve, the rear wheels have a slight steering facility for added stability and steering response. And for even more fun behind the wheel, a lowered and stiffer sports chassis is available.
    • Sports chassis
      • This chassis lowers the car by 10 mm for a sportier look and ride. The lower centre of gravity together with firmer shock absorbers and springs further improves roadholding, traction and road control when cornering – for your enjoyment and feeling of dynamic control in all situations.
    • Dynamic Stability and Traction Control (DSTC)
      • It can catch you out when you least expect it. And it really is a heart-stopping moment when, on a rain-slicked or ice-covered road, the tail of your car steps out as it threatens to go into a skid. Steer into that skid and you can end up fishtailing, and ultimately, going into a spin. This is precisely the kind of scenario that has made Dynamic Stability and Traction Control (DSTC) one of our most vital safety advances of the past decade. The system looks at factors like what direction the car is travelling, how fast the wheels are rotating and how much steering lock is applied. Using all this information, DSTC can detect a potential skid and take action to prevent it by reducing engine power and/or braking the appropriate wheels.
    • Driver adjustable power steering
      • To adapt the speed-dependent power steering characteristics to your own personal preferences, you can add driver adjustable power steering. While the steering assistance adjusts automatically depending on your car’s speed, you can choose in the centre display between three levels of overall steering feel and sensitivity – for low, medium or high steering assistance through the entire speed range.
    • Electrical power assist steering
      • This electrical power assisted rack and pinion steering saves fuel and responds to your commands precisely and intuitively. Behind the wheel, you can enjoy responsive yet firm steering at all speeds. And you easily adapt the steering characteristics and power assistance to suit your driving needs or moods: choose City, Highway or Sport and you can enjoy the ultimate setting for each situation.
  • Outside

    • T4 (2.0L I4 turbo petrol engine)
      • Why choose between performance and efficiency when you can have it all? With our lightweight Drive-E powertrain generation no efforts have been spared to give you the most efficient, confident and exciting driving experience – for today as well as for the future. Utilising state-of-the-art engine technology and innovative out-of-the-box thinking, our engineers have created a range of 2.0-litre four-cylinder engines with the same power output and driveability as considerably larges engines. Low friction technology, innovative engine management and common rail fuel-injection contribute to supremely low fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions, while the turbocharger provides this compact engine with the power and torque you need. Our Stop/Start technology and engine braking energy regeneration help you to reduce fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions even more. And low engine weight contributes to agile handling on winding roads. Together with the fuel-saving six-speed Geartronic™ automatic transmission, this 190 hp/300 Nm T4 drivetrain ensures a smooth ride. And if you'd like to boost your efficiency even further, our intelligent ECO function optimises the engine, the automatic transmission and the climate system to further lower your fuel consumption with about 5%. A six-speed manual gearbox is also available.
    • Fuel-saving design
      • Better design really can make a difference. To reduce energy losses from wind and rolling resistance, we use advanced aerodynamics, lightweight materials and low friction technology. Together with our state-of-the-art engines, this adds up to lower fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions for your car.
    • Advanced petrol engine emission control and diesel particulate filter
      • Going into action quickly after a cold start, our advanced emission control eliminates between 95 and 99 per cent of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from petrol engine exhaust gases. And Volvo turbodiesels feature a particulate filter that removes about 95 per cent of the particles from diesel exhaust gases.
    • Clean colours
      • To reduce usage of environmentally hazardous solvents, all Volvo exterior colours are water-based. What’s more, our painting facilities are among the cleanest in the world.
    • 85% recyclable
      • To help minimise our cars’ total environmental impact, every Volvo is designed to aid the recovery and recycling process at the end of its useful life.